Bulgarian language is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southernbranch of the Slavic language family.

Bulgarian has several characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages: changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article and the lack of a verb infinitive.  It’s controversial whether Bulgarian is an easy or hard language to learn. Compared to English, Bulgarian is well structured and straightforward with little irregularity. In Bulgarian you can always tell if a word is a noun, a verb or an adjective. The verb for example changes across person, number, voice, aspect, mood, tense and gender. Bulgarian has two aspects (perfect and imperfect), voice, nine tenses, five moods and six non infinitival verbal forms. Bulgarian has grammatical gender, with three genders – masculine, feminine and neuter. In addition, adjectives must agree with the gender of the noun they are modifying.

However, the Bulgarian alphabet is comparatively simple compared to other Slavic alphabets. Since 1945, it has only had 30 letters. Compare this to the 70 letters in Polish. There are only six vowels, and it has the easiest consonant clusters in Slavic. There are a number of Bulgarian letters that look like nothing you have ever seen before: Ж, Я, Ь, Ю, Й, Щ, Ш, and Ч.

The Cyrillic script was created in the First Bulgarian Empire.  Tradition holds that Cyrillic and Glagolitic were formalised either by the brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius. The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia. It is based on the Early Cyrilic, which was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School. It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of  southeastern Europe and northern Eurasia, especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them.

 

In Bulgarian language, the Cyrillic script is also known as azbuka, derived from the old names of the first two letters of most Cyrillic alphabets.

Although Cyril may have codified and expanded Glagolitic, it was his students in the First Bulgarian Empire under Tsar Simeon the Greatthat developed Cyrillic from the Greek letters in the 890s as a more suitable script for church books. Later Cyrillic spread among other Slavic peoples, as well as among non-Slavic Vlachs and Moldovians. The Cyrillic script came to dominate Glagolitic in the 12th century. The literature produced in the Old Bulgarian language soon spread north and became the common language of the Balkans and Eastern Europe, where it came to also be known as Old Church Slavonic.

 

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